Wednesday, October 31, 2018

What's the difference between 길이 and 길이?

ANSWER: One means length, and the other means for a long time. In other words, when 길이 is used as a noun, it means length, and when used as an adverb, it means for a long time.

Today I came across the expression 중국사에 길이 남을 쾌사(快事), which can translate as a joyful event (쾌사) in Chinese history that will last the ages. Here 길이 is being used as an adverb, so it means for a long time or forever, and 남다 means to remain, to be left over, or to survive and, therefore, can be translated as to last. Here are a couple more examples from my dictionary of 길이 being used as an adverb:
  • 그의 이름은 길이 남을 것이다.
    His name will be immortal [will live forever].
  • 그분의 은혜를 길이 못 잊겠다.
    I shall never forget his kindness.
And here are some examples of 길이 being used as a noun meaning length or extent:
  • 길이 일곱 자의 뱀
    a snake with a length of seven feet
  • 각각 1미터 길이로 잘라주시오.
    Cut them in lengths of one meter each.
  • 길이는 얼마냐?
    How long is it?
In my dictionary, both the adverb 길이 and the noun 길이 are listed as very frequently used words, which means they should be at the top of a list of Korean words to learn. And 길이, of course, should be pronounced as /기리/.

Tuesday, October 30, 2018

What does 안부 좀 전해주세요 mean?

ANSWER: "Please say 'hello' for me," or "Please send my regards."

Today I came across a video (See below) of a young Korean man who apparently teaches English expressions on YouTube. His name is Jeon Dae-ho (전대호), but you have to listen carefully to hear it when he introduces himself in Korean because he is a fast talker. I could only hear "안녕하세요, 여러분? ***입니다," so I had to look at the title of his video to get his full name.  I am not sure why some Koreans introduce themselves so quickly in Korean, but I used to have to tell my Korean students to slow down their introductions in English because knowing the names of the people they are talking to are important to Americans, and business cards are not commonly exchanged. Anyway, in his video Mr. Jeon teaches the expression "안부 좀 전해주세요," which reminded me of something I wanted to write about the expression and the word 안부.

My Korean-English dictionary defines 안부 (安否) as safety, welfare, health, or well-being, but it also defines it as news or tidings. The literal meaning of 안부, however, is comfortable or not. The Chinese character 安 (안) means comfortable or well, and 否 (부) means not, so since 좀 means please and 전하다 means convey or communicate, the expression 안부 좀 전해주세요 literally means "Please convey comfortable or not," which suggests the expression is an abbreviation of a longer expression. The longer expression is essentially one of the following two:

"(부모님께) 안부를 여쭈었다고 좀 전해주세요."
"Please tell (your parents) that I asked how they were doing." 
"(동생한테) 안부를 물었다고 좀 전해주세요." 
"Please tell (your younger brother) that I asked how he was doing."
As for Mr. Jeon and his English lessons, listening to his rapid-fire explanations might be a good way to practice Korean listening skills.

Monday, October 29, 2018

What does 움찔움짤 mean?

ANSWER: a flinching GIF image

움찔 means flinching, and 움짤 is an abbreviation of 직이는 방, a moving 짤방. And 짤방 is Korean slang for a JPG file image,  so 움짤 literally means a moving JPG image, commonly known as an animated GIF image. That means 움찔움짤 literally means a flinching (움찔) animated GIF image (움짤).

But what is a flinching animated GIF image움찔움짤 may be just a longer, somewhat redundant version of 움짤, or it may be an animated GIF where only a part or parts of the image move, as suggested in the video below. Notice in the video that the only parts of the two women that are moving are essentially their mouths and arms. In other words, they are physically demonstrating what the camera's animation function does to still  photos.


Blue: "사진 보여줄까?"
"Shall I show you a photo?"

Pink: "그래. 머리카락을 왜 안 움직여?"
"Sure. Why don't you move your hair?"

Blue: "이거 사진이거든."
"It's a photo."

Pink: "그래도 안 움직이네."
"Anyway, it doesn't move."

Blue: "이거 사진이라고."
"I said it's a photo."

Pink: "눈도 안 깜박거리네."
"And your eyes don't blink."

Blue: "너의 사진 움직이니?
"Do your photos move?"

Pink: "응. 움직여. 볼래?
"Yeah, they move. Do you want to see?"

Blue: "뭐야? 어떻게 한 거야?
"What? How did you do that?"

Pink: "매직. 매직으로 한 거야."
"Magic. I did it with magic."

Blue: "이런 거 처음 보는데."
"I'm seeing this kind of thing for the first time."

Pink: "당연하지. 신상이니까."
"Of course. Because it's a new product."

Blue: "이름이 뭔데?"
"What's its name?"

Pink: "이름이 뭐냐하면, LG V40."
"If you're asking its name, it's LG V40."

Narrator: "신기한 영상을 손쉽게 만들어주는 매직포토."
"Magic Photo easily makes amazing images."

Pink: "사진은 움직이는 거야."
"The photos move."

Blue: "움찔, 움짤"
"Flinching, animated GIF images."

Saturday, October 27, 2018

Friday, October 26, 2018

What are the pure Korean words for 동서남북 (東西南北)?

ANSWER: 새, 하늬, 마, 높

동서남북 (東西南北) are the Sino-Korean words for east (東), west (西), south (南), and north (北), but there are also pure Korean words: 새 means east, 하늬 west, 마 south, and 높 north. Besides referring to directions in general, the pure Korean words are also used by some farmers and sailors to refer to the direction of the wind, which is 바람 in pure Korean and 풍(風) in Sino-Korean.
  • east wind: 동풍(東風) or 샛바람
  • west wind: 서풍(西風) or 하늬바람
  • south wind: 남풍(南風) or 마바람
  • north wind: 북풍(北風) or 높바람

Thursday, October 25, 2018

How do you say "비가 내리겠습니다" in a pretentious way?

ANSWER: 비가 오는 날씨가 되겠습니다.

I like reading the writings of Lee Su-yeol (이수열), who does not hold back when it comes to criticizing Korean media, academics, politicians, and government officials who often use pretentiously silly or incorrect Korean expressions. From Mr. Lee's 1999 book, "우리가 정말 알아야 할 우리말 바로 쓰기," here is a short list of some of the pretentiously silly weather-related expressions he has apparently heard during Korean weather broadcasts:
  • Silly: 오늘은 구름이 많이 낀 상태를 보이고 있습니다.
    Good: 오늘은 구름이 많이 끼었습니다.
  • Silly: 오늘도 맑은 날씨가 이어지고 있는 상태입니다.
    Good: 오늘도 날씨가 맑습니다.
    Good: 오늘도 계속해서 갠 날씨입니다.
    Good: 오늘도 갰습니다.
  • Silly: 중부지방은 비가 내리고 있는 상태입니다.
    Good: 중부지방에(는) 비가 내립니다.
  • Silly: 남쪽 바다에서 태풍이 비바람을 몰고 오고 있는 상태입니다.
    Good: 남쪽 바다에서 태풍이 비바람을 몰아옵니다.
  • Silly: 오늘 아침도 쌀쌀한 기온의 날씨를 보이고 있습니다.
    Good: 오늘 아침도 (기온이) 쌀쌀합니다.
  • Silly: 비구름이 아직도 머물러 있는 모습이 보이고 있습니다.
    Good: 비구름이 아직도 머물러 있습니다.

Wednesday, October 24, 2018

What does the shape of Korea look like on the old Korean map below?

The map below is an old map of Korea that is believed to have been made some time in either the 1700s or the early 1800s. Notice that the shape of Korea on the map is different from the shape of Korea on modern maps. The reason for that is not because Koreans have expanded their territory since the time of the old map but rather because Koreans at the time apparently lacked the expertise to more precisely map their country.

Some say that the shape of Korea on modern maps looks like that of a rabbit, but such a comparison offends many Koreans who fear it gives the impression Koreans are weak and helpless. Instead, many Koreans prefer to think that the shape of their country is more like that of a fierce tiger standing up on its hind legs. If you are curious to know how sensitive Koreans are about the subject, point to Korea on a map and tell a Korean that it looks like a rabbit. I suspect the Korean will likely try to convince you otherwise.

Anyway, trying to describe the shape of Korea by comparing it to something is not new for Koreans. Near the upper right-hand corner of the old map below the following is written:

()()()()(), ()()()西()()
The shape of the land (地形) is like () a person () standing (),
[and] seas (
) surround () the east (), west (西), and south ().

Tuesday, October 23, 2018

What's the difference between 너 못하나? and 너 못한가?

ANSWER: 너 못하나? means Can't you do it? and 너 못한가? means Are you inferior?

못하다 can be used as a transitive verb or as an adjective. When it is used as a transitive verb, it means cannot, be impossible, or be unable to. When it is used as an adjective, it means be inferior or be worse than.

Okay. But how can you know 못하나 is being used as a verb and 못한가 as an adjective?

Because the question endings -나 and -는가 are used only with verbs, and -ㄴ/은가 only with adjectives, though -ㄴ가 is also used with the copula (이다). Therefore, when you see 못하나 or 못하는가, you know 못하다 is being used as a verb; and when you see 못한가, you know it is being used as an adjective.

However, these days many Koreans are forgetting these distinctions and are mistakenly using the question ending -나 with both verbs and adjectives, so you have to watch out for that.

Monday, October 22, 2018

What does 참 좋으이더 mean?

ANSWER: I think 참 좋으이더 means either 참 촣습니다 or 참 촣군요.

Today, I came across a song by Sim Jae-kyeong (심재경) entitled "참 좋으이더," which apparently is the Andong (Northern Gyeongsang region) dialect for either 참 좋습니다 or 참 좋군요. The English translation would be "This/That is great!" What I found interesting about the title of the song is that 좋으이, without the 다, is a Korean exclamation for "Good!" or "Great!"

When Koreans want to express surprise or excitement, as if they were talking to themselves, they traditionally add -는구나 (군) to verb stems and -구나 (군) to adjectives and the copula (이다) stems. Optionally, they can add -네 to verb stems, -(으)이 to adjective stems, and -ㄹ세 to the copula stem (이다/아니다). See the following examples:

Action Verbs
  • 비가 오는구나.
  • 먹는구나.
  • 비가 오네.
  • 먹네.
Adjectives (Descriptive Verbs)
  • 산이 높구나.
  • 딸이 예쁘구나.
  • 산이 높으이
  • 딸이 예쁘이
Copula (이다/아니다*)
  • 외국 사람이구나.
  • 한국 사람이 아니구나.
  • 외국 사람일세.
  • 한국 사람이 아닐세.
* Though 아니다 is classified as an adjective, it is also the negative form of the copula 이다 (i.e. 안 이다) and takes the -ㄹ세 ending instead of the adjective ending -(으)이, so 아니다 is not your average adjective.

Though many Koreans still seem to be using -는구나 and -구나, many younger Koreans these days seem to be adding -네 or -네요 to almost everything, thereby, ignoring the above distinctions between verbs, adjectives, and copulas. I am not sure if that is a good thing or a bad thing, but it is interesting to see that the phrase 좋으이다, suggesting 좋군요, is still being used by some in the provinces.

Below is a music video of the song mentioned above. The song is about a man who returns after a long time to his home village of Andong (안동), in North Gyeongsang Province, where he is greeted by an old friend who greets him using the familiar dialect of his childhood. Though I do not know much about the dialect, I have tried to translate the lyrics into standard Korean just below the video. I have also translated them into English. Anyway, it is a beautiful song.

안녕하시이껴 (안녕하십니까?)
How are you?
밥 잡샀니껴 (밥 잡수셨습니까?)
Have you eaten?
우리 참 오랫 마이씨더 (우리 참 오래만입니다.)
It's been a long time.
참 좋으이더 (참 좋습니다.)
This is great!
이게 얼마 마이껴 (이게 얼마 만입니까?)
How long has it been?
잘 지냈니껴 (잘 니냈습니까?)
Have you been doing well?
옛모습 고대로씨더 (옛 모습 그대로입니다.)
You look just like your old self.
참 좋으이더 (참 좋습니다!)
This is great!
머 한다고 그리 바빴는지 (뭘 한다고 그렇게 바빴는지)
What has kept you so busy
서로 얼굴도 못보고 지냈니더 (서로 얼굴도 못 보고 지냈습니다.)
That we have not been able to see each other?
우리 인제는 자주 쫌 보시더 (우리 이제는 자주 좀 봅시다.)
From now on, let's please try to see each other frequently.
이래 보이 얼마나 좋으이껴 (이렇게 보니 얼마나 좋습니까?)
How great is it to meet like this.
안글리껴 (안 그렇습니까?)
안녕하시이껴 (안녕하십니까?)
How are you?
밥 잡샀니껴 (밥 잡수셨습니까?
Have you eaten?
우리 참 오랫 마이씨더 (우리 참 오래만입니다.)

It's been a long time for us.
참 좋으이더 (참 좋습니다.)
This is great!

안녕하시이껴 (안녕하십니까?)
How are you?
밥 잡샀니껴 (밥 잡수셨습니까?)
Have you eaten?
우리 참 오랫 마이씨더 (우리 참 오래만입니다.)
It's been a long time for us.
참 좋으이더 (참 좋습니다.)
This is great!
어른들 편하시니껴  (어른들 편하십니까?)
How are your parents?
아들도 마이 컸겠니더 (아이들도 많이 컸겠습니다.)
Your kids have probably grown a lot.
언제 같이 함 보시더  (언제 같이 한번 봅시다.)
Let's get together sometime.
참 좋으이더 (참 좋습니다.)
This is great!
머 한다고 그리 바빴는지 (뭘 한다고 그렇게 바빴는지.)
What has keep you so busy
서로 얼굴도 못보고 지냈니더 (서로 얼굴도 못 보고 지냈습니다.)
That we have not been able to see each other?
우리 인제는 자주 쫌 보시더 (우리 이제는 자주 좀 봅시다.)
From now on, let's please see each other frequently.
이래 보이 얼마나 좋으이껴 (이렇게 보니 얼마나 좋습니까?)
How great is it to meet like this?
안글리껴 (안 그렇습니까?)
안녕하시이껴 (안녕하십니까?)
How are you?
밥 잡샀니껴 (밥 잡수셨습니까?)
How you eaten?
우리 참 오랫 마이씨더 (우리 참 오래만입니다.)
It's been a long time.
참 좋으이더 (참 좋습니다.)
This is great!
참 좋으이더 (참 좋습니다.)
This is great!
참 좋으이더 (참 좋습니다.)
This is great!

Sunday, October 21, 2018

Why is the poem 정야사 (靜夜思) so special?

ANSWER: I suspect it is because it is a relatively easy poem to read and understand.

In the video below, the man describes the poem 靜夜思 (정야사) by saying, "Basically, this is the first poem students learn when they begin to study classical Chinese." I suspect the reason for that is because the poem is written with simple characters and simple grammar and communicates a simple message: Homesickness.

Since the man in the video does such a good job of describing the grammar of the poem, I will just post the poem below with the Korean pronunciations of the characters. However, I will say that during the classical period, the character 是 (시) meant this or this is and was used to refer back to something previously stated. Also, I changed the character 舉 (거) to 擧 (거) because, though the two characters have the same meaning, 擧 is the more commonly used character in Korea. Finally, because each line in the poem is limited to only five characters, unnecessary characters with meanings such as at, I, and my are left out.

A Quiet () Night’s () Thought ()
In front of the bed (床前) [is] bright () moon () light ().
[I] suspect () this [is] () frost on the ground (地上霜).
[I] raise () [my] head () [and] gaze () [at] the bright () moon ().
[I] lower () [my] head () [and] think of () home (故鄕).

What is the origin of the sentence "농자천하지대본"?

ANSWER: I'm not sure, but the sentence was used in a 1513 article in the Annals of King Jungjong.

농자천하지대본 (農者天下之大本) literally means "Agriculture (農者) [is] the country's (天下之) foundation (大本)." Though I am unsure of the origin of the quote, it is often used in Korea when giving encouragement to farmers. And Daniel Webster (1782 - 1852) expressed the same sentiment in a May 1844 speech in Trenton, New Jersey:
 I look, therefore, upon it as altogether a wrong statement of the question, to say that a tariff for protection is alone beneficial, or mainly beneficial, to manufacturers. I regard it as essential to the interest of agriculture, which may be regarded as the foundation of the country, inasmuch as it creates a market for its productions. And I am disposed to pass the few moments allowed us here, in discussing these things which lie at the foundation of the prosperity of the country, and which, if I understand the matter, form the platform of the Whig principles.

Friday, October 19, 2018

How well do you know your body-part idioms?

Koreans have literally hundreds of idioms based on body parts. An example would be 눈이 뒤집히다, which has a literally meaning of "eyes turned inside out" but an idiomatic meaning of "to lose one's sober judgment" or "to run wild." There is a good list of Korean body-part idioms HERE.

In case the link someday stops working, I have also copied and pasted the list below. Besides, I may want to add to it, even though it looks like a pretty complete list. Also, I am thinking about adding the literal meanings of the idioms.

간 (liver)

  • 간이 콩알만 해 지다. (be scared stiff, be terrified/I cringed and got sick to my stomach./I was walking alone last night and the cat came out of nowhere, I got the fright of my life!)
  • 간이 배 밖에 나왔다 -
  • 간에 기별도 안가다 - barely begin to satisfy one's hunger
  • 간에 붙었다 쓸개에 붙었다 하다 - be fickle
  • 간을 녹이다 - charm; fascinate; bewitch
  • 간이 뒤집히다 - to rebuke someone for laughing without reason
  • 간이 떨어지다 - to be suddenly surprised
  • 간이 붓다 - to be uppity
  • 간이 작은 - timid; faint-hearted
  • 간이 철렁하다 - be shocked
  • 간이 콩알만해지다 - to be frightened out of one's wits
  • 간이 타다 - be anxious (for) / pine
  • 간(을) 졸이다 - to worry oneself
  • 간(이) 크다 - be plucky, courageous 

가랑이 (crotch)

  • 가랑이가 찢어지게 가난하다 - to suffer from extreme poverty

가슴 (chest)

  • 가슴에 맺히다 - to have vengence of fear knotting up inside you
  • 가슴에 못을 박다 - to be hurt emotionally
  • 가슴을 치다 - feel frustration; feel wronged
  • 가슴을 태우다 - be very anxious
  • 가슴이 내려앉다 - be greatly surprised; be startled
  • 가슴이 덜컹하다 - be suddenly surprised or shocked
  • 가슴이 미어지다 - be stricken with grief, pain, sadness, or emotion
  • 가슴이 부풀다 - be buoyant (with)
  • 가슴이 뿌듯하다 - be full of excitement and emotion
  • 가슴이 아프다 - be hearted-broken
  • 가슴이 찢어지다 - be heart-broken
  • 가슴이 철렁하다 - be suddenly surprised or shocked
  • 가슴이 후련하다 - feel relieved

간담 (liver & gall bladder)

  • 간담이 떨어지다 very surprised
  • 간담이 서늘하다 be suddenly frightened

귀 (ear)

  • 귀가 가렵다 to have a feeling someone is talking about you
  • 귀가 따갑다 to be sick of hearing (something); an earache
  • 귀가 먹다 to lose one's hearing; to be deaf
  • 귀가 밝다 to be sharp eared
  • 귀가 번쩍 뜨이다 to come to one's attention; to catch on
  • 귀가 설다 be unfamiliar to one's ears
  • 귀가 솔깃한 welcome to the ears; tempting to the ears
  • 귀가 어둡다 to be hard of hearing; to not be catch up on the news
  • 귀가 여리다 to be easily fooled or seduced by other's words
  • 귀가 얇다 to be easily fooled or seduced by other's words
  • 귀가 울리다 to have a ringing in one's ears
  • 귀가 절벽이다 to be stone deaf; to be out of touch with the world
  • 귀가 질기다 to be mentally slow and have a hard time understanding people
  • 귀를 기울이다 strain one's ears to hear
  • 귀를 뜨다 to begin to discern sound (as with a baby)
  • 귀를 의심하다 to (hear something that makes you) not believe your ears
  • 귀를 주다 to overhear someone
  • 귀 빠진 날 one's birthday
  • 귀에 거슬리다 to be harsh on the ears; grating
  • 귀에 거칠다 to be disagreeable to hear; offensive
  • 귀에 들어가다 to hear about (something)
  • 귀에 못이 박히다 to be tired of hearing (something)
  • 귀에 설다 to be unfamiliar to one's ears
  • 귀에 익다 to be familiar to one's ears
  • 귀청이 떨어지다 to be so loud that it hurts the ears
  • 귓가로 듣다 to listen without paying attention
  • 귓등으로 듣다 to pretend to be listening
  • 귓구멍이 넓다 to readily believe what people say
  • 귓문이 넓다 to readily believe what people say
  • 귓전으로 듣다 to half-way listen to someone 

꼬리 (tail)

  • 꼬리가 길다 "Were you born in a barn?" (Used when someone forgets to close a door.)
  • 꼬리를 감추다 cover one's tracks; hide oneself
  • 꼬리를 달다 make an additional comment in support of something; attach a condition to something
  • 꼬리를 물다 continue one after another; in rapid succession
  • 꼬리를 사리다 to shrink from danger; to shrink back in fear
  • 꼬리를 밟히다 give a clue to (police); be traced by
  • 꼬리를 잇다 continue one after another
  • 꼬리를 잡다 discover the hidden mistakes of another
  • 꼬리를 치다/흔들다 (a girl tries to) seduce or entice (a man); flatter or butter up a person
  • 쥐꼬리 - is a rat's tail and used for things that are really small, usually used in conjunction with the grammar 만 한.
    • 쥐꼬리만 한 월급 - a really small salary, getting paid peanuts.
    • 쥐꼬리만 한 돈 - a really small amount of money, chicken feed.

낯 (face)

낯 means face, although 얼굴 is a lot more commonly used.
  • 낯을 못 들다 be ashamed of oneself; cannot hold one's head up
  • 낯이 깎이다 lose (one's) dignity
    • (너을 볼) 낯이 없다 I am too ashamed (to face you.)
  • 낯가죽 (the skin of the face)
    • 낯가죽이 두껍다 be brazen-faced

눈 (eye)

  • 눈이 높다 - to have high standards, be picky
  • 눈에 쌍심지를 켜다 - ?
  • 눈에서 멀어지면 마음에서도 멀어진다 - out of sight, out of mind
  • 눈도 깜짝 안 한다 to not bat an eyelid
  • 눈뜨고 볼 수 없다 disgusting; shocking
  • 눈먼 돈 an unexpected windfall; receive money unexpectedly
  • 눈밖에 나다 to be out of favor with someone
  • 눈에 거슬리다 to be offensive to the eye; be unpardonable
  • 눈에 넣어도 아프지 않다 be the apple of one's eye
  • 눈에 들다 to be in a person's favor
  • 눈에 띄다 to come in sight
  • 눈에 밟히다 to haunt one's memory
  • 눈에 불을 켜다 to be angry
  • 눈에 불이 나다 to become very angry
  • 눈에서 번개가 번쩍 나다 to see stars (when struck on the head)
  • 눈에 선하다 to have an object or an event flash back into your memory
  • 눈에 설다 to be unfamilar to you
  • 눈에 쌍심지를 켜다 to glare with anger
  • 눈에 어리다 to remain a vivid image in one's memory
  • 눈에 익다 to be familar
  • 눈에 차다 to see something you like
  • 눈에 헛거미가 잡히다 to have your eyes get fuzzy from hunger
  • 눈에 흙이 들어가다 to die
  • 눈썰미가 있다 to have a quick eye for learning things

눈썹 (eyebrow)

  • 눈썹도 까딱하지 않다 to remain unperturbed
  • 눈길을 끌다 to catch one's eye; to attract one's attention
  • 눈을 돌리다 to turn one's attention to
  • 눈을 딱 감다 to stop worrying (thinking) about something
  • 눈을 떼다 to take one's eyes off of something
  • 눈을 맞추다 to make eye contact with someone
  • 눈을 부라리다 to glare upon; to look fiercely at
  • 눈을 붙이다 to fall asleep
  • 눈을 속이다 to trick someone with slight of hand
  • 눈을 의심하다 to watch in disbelief.
  • 눈을 주다 to look toward someone; to signal someone with one's eyes
  • 눈을 피하다 to avoid another's observation
  • 눈을 흘기다 to look at someone sideways
  • 눈이 가다 to have one's eyes drawn to something or someone
  • 눈 깜짝할 사이 happen in the blink of an eye
  • 눈이 꺼지다 to be hallow-eyed
  • 눈이 높다 to have high ambitions; to have a discerning eye
  • 눈이 뒤집히다 to lose one's sober judgment; to run wild
  • 눈이 등잔만하다 to look with round-eyed wonder
  • 눈이 맞다 fall in love
  • 눈이 미치는 한 as far as the eye can see
  • 눈이 빠지게〔빠지도록〕 기다리다 to wait anxiously
  • 눈이 삐었지? Is something wrong with eyes (judgment)?
  • 눈이 어둡다 to have bad eyesight
  • 눈이 흐리다 to see something unclearly

다리 (leg)

  • 다리를 뻗고 자다 to sleep or live one's life with a clean conscience

등 (back)

  • 등을 대다 to rely or depend on someone else's power or influence
  • 등을 돌리다 to turn one's back on (someone)

마음 (mind, heart, spirit)

  • 마음에 두다 bare in mind; be mindful of
  • 마음에 들다 to like something
  • 마음에 새기다 take to heart
  • 마음에 짚이다 to suspect
  • 마음은 굴뚝 같다 be eager to
  • 마음을 고쳐먹다 reform onself; turn over a new leaf
  • 마음을 놓다 put one's mind at ease; relax
  • 마음을 먹다 make up one's mind; be determined
  • 마음을 붙이다 resolve to (do something)
  • 마음을 사다 have an interest in
  • 마음을 쓰다 concentrate on; pay attention to; mind
  • 마음을 열다 open up and speak freely to someone
  • 마음을 잡다 recover one's composure; get a grip on oneself
  • 마음을 졸이다 be anxious about; be uneasy about
  • 마음이 끌리다 be attracted by; take an interest in
  • 마음이 내키다 feel inclined to (do); feel like (doing)
  • 마음이 달다 be very worried about
  • 마음이 든든하다 feel secure; be reassuring
  • 마음이 들뜨다 feel excited; be in a buoyant spirit
  • 마음이 맞다 get along well with; hit it off
  • 마음이 쓰이다 be worried about
  • 마음이 죄이다 feel anxious; feel uneasy about
  • 마음이 커지다 be emboldened
  • 큰 마음 먹다 be generous; finally make a difficult decision

머리 (head, hair)

  • 머리가 나쁘다 - to be stupid
  • 머리하다 do one's hair
  • 머리가 가볍다 to feel refreshed and light
  • 머리가 굳다 to be ingrained (in someone's head); to be dimwitted
  • 머리가 굵다 to become an adult
  • 머리가 돌다 to go insane
  • 머리가 돌아가다 to be a quick thinker
  • 머리가 무겁다 to be in a bad mood; to feel heavy headed
  • 머리가 수그러지다 to take off one's hat to; to admire (someone)
  • 머리가 젖다 to be influenced by
  • 머리가 크다 to become an adult
  • 머리(를) 굽히다 to surrender
  • 머리(를) 깎다 to become a monk; to go to prison
  • 머리(를) 내밀다 to make one's existence known
  • 머리(를) 들다 to make one's views or objective known
  • 머리(를) 모으다 to put one's heads together
  • 머리(를) 숙이다 to show respect and admiration for (someone)
  • 머리(를) 식히다 to cool off
  • 머리(를) 싸매고 to tie a cloth around one's head; to commit to (something)
  • 머리(를) 썩이다 to worry about
  • 머리(를) 쓰다 to think; to view a matter from every angle
  • 머리(를) 얹다 to get married; to lose one's virginity
  • 머리에 들어가다 to understand or remember something
  • 머리(를) 짜다 to rack one's brains; to think hard
  • 머리(를) 풀다 to lose one's parents
  • 머리(를) 흔들다 to refuse; to deny

무릎 (knee)

  • 무릎(을) 꿇다 to submit or surrender
  • 무릎(을) 치다 to slap one's knee in surprise or glee

목 (neck or throat)

  • 목에 핏대를 세우다 to get angry; to get excited 
  • 목에 힘을 주다 to act arrogant 
  • 목을 베다 to be fired 
  • 목을 자르다 to be fired 
  • 목을 축이다 to quench one's thirst 
  • 목이 곧다 to be stubborn or unyielding 
  • 목이 달아나다/떨어지다 to be fired 
  • 목이 메어 울다 to be choked with tears 
  • 목이 붙어 있다 to still be alive (or employed) 
  • 목이 빠지도록 기다리다 to wait anxiously for (someone) 
  • 목이 잠기다 to become hoarse 
  • 목이 타다 to feel very thirsty

몸 (body)

  • 몸과 마음을 다 바치다 put one's heart and soul into one's work
  • 몸 둘 바를 모르다 not know how to conduct oneself
  • 몸에 배다 get used to something
  • 몸을 두다 to live in a certain place
  • 몸을 망치다 shatter one's constitution; injure one's health
  • 몸을 받다 have an inferior do a difficult job or task in one's place
  • 몸을 바치다 to sacrifice one's life for a cause
  • 몸을 버리다 hurt one's health
  • 몸을 붙이다 to live in a certain place
  • 몸을 사리다 avoid exerting too much physical effort in a job
  • 몸을 쓰다 be physically active
  • 몸을 아끼다 avoid work or hardship
  • 몸이 달다 be anxious and nervous
  • 몸이 부서지도록 일하다 work oneself to the bone

발 (foot)

  • 발에 채다 to be scattered in abundance at one's feet
  • 발을 구르다 stamp one's feet with annoyance or chagrin
  • 발을 끊다 to end relations with (someone); to stop visiting (somewhere)
  • 발을 벗고 나서다 to actively participate in (something)
  • 발을 빼다 to wash one's hands of (an affair); sever connections
  • 발을 뻗고 자다 to feel peace of mind
  • 발이 길다 to arrive just in time for a treat
  • 발이 넓다 to know a lot of people; to get around
  • 발 디딜 틈도 없다 to be crowded with people
  • 발이 맞다 to be in step; to fall in step
  • 발이 묶이다 to be stranded without transport
  • 발이 떨어지지 않다 be unable to leave because of an attraction for the place or people
  • 손이 발이 되도록 빌다 to beg or pray so imploringly that you use both your hands and feet

발목 (ankle)

  • 발목(을) 잡히다 to be busy with (work); tied to a job

발바닥 (the sole of the foot)

  • 발바닥에 흙 안 묻히고 살다 to live a quiet and comfortable life

배 (belly)

  • 배를 채우다 to satisfy one's appetite for material goods
  • 배가 아프다 to feel intense jealousy
  • 배를 앓다 to feel intense jealousy
  • 배를 튕기다 to brazenly ignore someone's requests

볼 (cheek)

  • 볼(이) 붓다 to show an angry expression

뼈 (bone)

  • 뼈도 못 추리다 to boast that one will completely destroy an opponent
  • 뼈를 깎다 to feel unbearable pain (about something)
  • 뼈만 남다 to be skin and bones
  • 뼈만 앙상하다 to be skin and bones
  • 뼈에 사무치다 to have a deep, buring pain or grudge

살 (skin, fat)

  • 살로 가다 What one eats goes to fat.
  • 살을 붙이다 give body or shape to something, like a novel or a sculpture
  • 살을 섞다 have sex; live a married life; cohabit
  • 살을 에다 pain, sadness, or hardship (as from the cold) so intense that it "cuts at the flesh"
  • 살이 깊다 have thick skin; fleshy
  • 살이 내리다 become thinner; lose weight
  • 살이 두껍다 have thick skin; fleshy
  • 살이 빠지다 become thinner; lose weight
  • 살이 오르다/붙다 become fatter; put on weight

불알 (testical)

  • 불알 친구 - this means a really close friend. (origin?)

속 (one's insides, one's heart)

  • 속을 긁다 hurt a person's feelings, offend (a person)
  • 속을 끓이다 to worry about (something); be frustrated
  • 속을 떠보다 guess a person's mind or feelings
  • 속을 뽑다 sound out a person's views
  • 속을 썩이다 be bothered by a bad outcome or situation
  • 속을 주다 take a person into one's confidence
  • 속을 차리다 behave responsibly
  • 속을 태우다 worry oneself (about)
  • 속이 달다 be anxious or eager; be impatient
  • 속이 뒤집히다 feel nauseous
  • 속이 보이다 be transparent; easy to see through
  • 속이 살다 look calm on the outside, but be defiant on the inside
  • 속이 상하다 be distressed; be unhappy; feel depressed
  • 속이 시원하다 a refreshing feeling; feel relieved
  • 속이 썩다 be very troubled
  • 속이 앉다 the inside of cabbage develops
  • 속이 타다 be distressed (about); be nervous
  • 속이 트이다 be broadminded and open
  • 속이 풀리다 to calm down after being angry

손 (hand)

  • 손바닥 보듯이 알다 - know something like the back of your hand. However the Korean version actually says the palm instead of the back of the hand. In many Asian cultures, people know their palms because of the common belief that there's information of one's life in their palms, i.e. the length of the lines on one's palms shows how long a person will live.
  • 손에 걸리다 to catch with one's hand
  • 손에 넣다 to get; to gain possession of
  • 손에 달리다 an outcome rests in someone else's hands
  • 손에 땀을 쥐다 to be in breathless suspense or with suppressed excitement
  • 손에 떨어지다 to have power or authority fall in one's hands
  • 손에 붙다 to get good at something
  • 손에 익다 to get used to doing something
  • 손에 잡히지 않다 be in no mood to work
  • 손에 쥐다 to gain possession of something
  • 손을 거치다 to pass through someone's hands; to go through an intermediary
  • 손을 끊다 sever one's connections with; cease to deal with
  • 손을 나누다 to seperate from someone.
  • 손을 넘기다 skip numbers when counting; miscalculate
  • 손을 내밀다 to ask to receive something
  • 손을 떼다 to quit a job
  • 손을 멈추다 to pause in one's work
  • 손을 붙이다 be begin; set one's hand to
  • 손을 벌리다 to irritatingly demand something (like money)
  • 손을 보다 show one's anger by using violence against somene
  • 손이 비다 have no work to do; be at leisure
  • 손을 빌리다 ask for help on a job
  • 손을 빼다 to quit a job before it is finished
  • 손을 뻗치다 to try a new line of work; to expand one's power or influence
  • 손을 씻다 to disassociate oneself from some questionable act or job
  • 손을 젓다 to turn down a request or to deny something
  • 손을 주다 use a stake to support a plant or vine
  • 손을 타다 have (one's rice) stolen little by little
  • 손을 털다 to lose all of one's investiment
  • 손이 거칠다 to be inclined to steal
  • 손이 곱다 have numb hands (fingers)
  • 손이 나다 to get a short break from work
  • 손이 놀다 to be at leisure
  • 손이 달리다 be short-handed; be undermanned
  • 손이 떨어지다 to be finished with a job
  • 손이 뜨다 to be a slow worker
  • 손이 많이 가다 require much work; be troublesome
  • 손이 맑다 be unlucky and have nothing; be stingy
  • 손이 맞다 be in cahoots with (someone)
  • 손이 맵다 to have a stinging hand (when hitting someone)
  • 손이 모자라다/부족하다 be short-handed; be undermanned
  • 손이 서투르다 be clumsy with one's hands; unskillful
  • 손이 설다 to be clumsy with one's hands; unskillful
  • 손이 싸다 to be quick-handed
  • 손이 미치다 to be within one's power or influence
  • 손이 작다 to have few options; to have few resources
  • 손이 잠기다 be busy; have one's hands full
  • 손이 크다 generous; open-handed; resourceful

손목 (wrist)

  • 손목을 잡고 말리다 to stop someone from doing something

손톱 (fingernail)

  • 손톱도 안 들어가다 to be firm and stingy
  • 손톱만큼도 not even the slightest ...
  • 손톱 여물을 썬다 to deal with a difficult situation on one's own
  • 손톱을 튀기다 to not work and only seek to enjoy oneself
  • 손톱 하나 까딱하지 않는다 to not lift a finger to help with work

쓸개 (gallbladder)

  • 간에 붙었다가 쓸개에 붙었다가 한다.

심장 (heart)

  • 심장이 강하다 to be pushy and strong-willed
  • 심장이 약하다 to be timid and weak-willed

어깨 (shoulder)

  • 어깨가 가벼워지다 be relieved of one's burden (responsibility)
  • 어깨가 무겁다 bear a heavy responsibility; be burdensome
  • 어깨가 움츠러들다 to shrink back in shame or embarrassment
  • 어깨가 으쓱거리다 to feel righteous and proud
  • 어깨가 처지다 one's shoulders drop
  • 어깨로 숨을 쉬다 breathe hard; pant
  • 어깨를 겨누다/겨루다 rank with another; can compare with another
  • 어깨를 나란히 하다 stand shoulder to shoulder; stay side by side
  • 어깨를 으쓱거리다 square one's shoulders
  • 어깨를 짓누르다 to feel strong pressure from duty, reponsibility, or restrictions

얼굴 (face)

  • 얼굴에 똥칠을 하다 cause someone to lose face; shame a person
  • 얼굴에 먹칠을 하다 cause someone to lose face; shame a person
  • 얼굴에 철판을 깔다 be brazen-faced
  • 얼굴을 고치다 fix one's makeup
  • 얼굴을 깎다 cause someone to lose face; shame a person
  • 얼굴을 내밀다 make an appearance: show oneself
  • 얼굴을 붉히다 to turn red in the face from embarrassment or rage
  • 얼굴을 하다 to show some facial expression
  • 얼굴이 깍이다 lose face; lose one's honor
  • 얼굴이 두껍다 bold self-assurance
  • 얼굴이 뜨겁다 to feel embarrassment
  • 얼굴이 반반하다 have regular (facial) features
  • 얼굴이 반쪽이 되다 look very haggard from sickness or pain
  • 어굴이 서다 save one's face
  • 얼굴이 팔리다 become famous or well-known
  • 얼굴이 피다 have a full, healthy-looking face

엉덩이 (the buttocks)

  • 엉덩이가 가볍다 do not stay long in one place; change jobs frequently
  • 엉덩이가 근질근질하다 be restless; fidgety
  • 엉덩이가 무겁다 be lazy; be indolent
  • 엉덩이를 붙이다 to sit down
  • 엉덩방아(를) 찧다 to fall on one's butt

이 (teeth)

  • 이가 갈리다 get angry about something
  • 이가 맞다 to be a perfect fit or match
  • 이가 빠지다 a piece chips off the edge of a dish or knife
  • 이를 갈다 lose one's baby teeth; grind one's teeth in anger
  • 이를 악물다 clench one's teeth with determination or strained patience

입 (mouth)

  • 입이 가볍다 - not good at keeping secrets, can't keep their mouth shut. literally means your lips are light.
  • 입이 무겁다 - tight lipped, good at keeping secrets, holding your tongue. Literally means your lips are heavy.
  • 입이 열 개라도 할 말이없다 - no words can justify my actions. Literally means even if I have ten mouths, I would have nothing to say.
  • 입만 살다 be all talk and no deed; be bold in word only
  • 입만 아프다 to talk in vain
  • 입 밖에 내다 speak of; mention
  • 입에 거미줄 치다 lose one's means of living
  • 입에 담다 speak of; mention
  • 입에 대다 taste; touch; eat
  • 입에 맞는 떡 an agreeable food or thing
  • 입에 맞다 suit one's taste or palate
  • 입에 발린 소리 lip service
  • 입에서 신물이 난다 be fed up with
  • 입에서 젖내가 난다 be babyish; be green
  • 입에 오르내리다 be the talk of the town
  • 입에 오르다 be the talk of the town
  • 입에 올리다 speak of; mention
  • 입에 침이 마르도록 speak highly of someone
  • 입에 풀칠을 하다 make one's living; win one's daily bread
  • 입을 놀리다 talk at random
  • 입을 다물다 keep silent
  • 입을 딱 벌리다 one's mouth drops in shock or amazement
  • 입을 떼다 begin to talk; break the silence; broach a subject
  • 입을 막다 silence a person
  • 입을 맞추다 kiss
  • 입을 모으다 a group of people all speak with one voice
  • 입을 씻기다 pay hush money; buy a person's silence
  • 입을 씻다 feign innocence
  • 입을 열다 tell; confess; disclose a secret
  • 입이 걸걸하다 be foulmouthed
  • 입이 고급이다 be a discriminating eater
  • 입이 궁금하다 desire to eat something
  • 입이 근질근질하다 be anxious to tell people about something you know
  • 입이 까다롭다 - ?
  • 입이 닳도록 over and over again
  • 입이 더럽다 be abusive; swear at
  • 입이 되다 try to eat only good-tasting food
  • 입이 떨어지다 to talk (usually used with negative verbs and adverbs)
  • 입이 뜨다 be silent or taciturn
  • 입이 많다 have a big family to feed
  • 입이 바르다 be frank; be outspoken
  • 입이 빠르다 one who spreads rumors
  • 입이 벌어지다 be in openmouthed amazement
  • 입이 싸다 be talkative; be loose-lipped
  • 입이 쓰다 be bitter, displeased, or unhappy
  • 입이 짧다 have a small appetite

젖 (breast)

  • 젖 떨어진 강아지 같다 fret or whine (like a puppy that has lost its mom's teat)
  • 젖 먹던 힘이 다 든다 to require a great deal of effort
  • 젖을 떼다 to wean a child
  • 젖이 지다 mother's milk seeping from swollen breasts

코 (nose)

  • 코가 꿰이다 be restricted or hindered by something or someone
  • 코가 납작해지다 be shamed by someone; lose one's nerve
  • 코가 높다 to put on airs; to act proud
  • 코가 석자 to be in way over one's head
  • 코를 골다 to snore
  • 코를 맞대다 to be nose-to-nose with someone
  • 코를 찌르다 to be offensive to one's nose
  • 코 먹은 소리 to speak through one's nose; to nazalize
  • 코 묻은 돈 used to make fun of the pocket change kids carry around
  • 코가 빠지다 to lose one's nerve or spirit
  • 코에 걸다 to brag about something
  • 코를 풀다 to blow one's nose
  • 코앞에 닥치다 be close at hand; be imminent

콧구멍 (a nostril)

  • 콧구멍만하다 a very small hole or something with a very small width

콧대 (the bridge or ridge of the nose)

  • 콧대가 높다 put on airs; to be puffed up with pride
  • 콧대가 세다 to be stubborn and ignore what others say
  • 콧대를 꺾다 put a person in his or her place; knock a person down a peg
  • 콧대를 세우다 act arrogant and conceited

탯줄 (umbilical cord)

  • 탯줄 잡듯 하다 hold very tight

팔 (arm)

  • 팔을 걷고 나서다 to enthusiastically take on a job

허리 (waist)

  • 허리가 꼿꼿하다 be unusually fit for one's age
  • 허리가 부러지다 be in a difficult to manage or a physically challenging situation
  • 허리가 휘다 be physically challenged by excessive labor or life's hardships
  • 허리를 굽히다 bow; show humility; show submission to a person
  • 허리를 못 펴다 be intimidated by someone
  • 허리를 잡다 to fall over laughing
  • 허리를 쥐고 웃다 to fall over laughing
  • 허리를 펴다 overcome personal economic hardships

혀 (tongue)

  • 혀가 꼬이다 - Literally means one's tongue is tangled. Can be used for when one is speaking too fast, tongue twitters or even when one slurs when drunk.
  • 혀가 잘 안 돌아가다 to be uneloguent in speech; mispronounce (a foreign language)
  • 혀가 잘 돌아가다 have a glib tongue; talk a lot; be eloguent in speech
  • 혀가 짧다 to stutter or not pronounce clearly
  • 혀가 꼬부라지다 be have slurred speech because of drink or sickness
  • 혀를 굴리다 make a slip of the tongue; blurt out; trill (the "r")
  • 혀를 내두르다 to be dumbstruck
  • 혀를 내밀다 make fun of someone behind their back; a gesture done to hide one's embarrassment
  • 혀를 놀리다 make a slip of the tongue; blurt out
  • 혀를 차다 click one's tongue, usually in disapproval

Wednesday, October 17, 2018

How do you pronounce 민주주의의 의의?

민주주의 means democracy. The 의 immediately following 민주주의 is the Korean possessive marker, which translates as of. And the final 의의 means significance. Therefore, the Korean phrase 민주주의의 의의 translates as the significance of democracy. But how do you pronounce the Korean phrase?

When 의 is the first syllable of a word, it is pronounced as the diphthong 의, which is pronounced with the sound 으 quickly blending into the sound 이. When 의 is the last syllable of a word, it is pronounced /이/, so the Korean word for democracy (민주주의) is pronounced /민주주이/, and the Korean word for significance (의의) is pronounced /의이/. As for the possessive marker 의, it is pronounced /에/. Therefore, the Korean phrase 민주주의의 의의 is pronounced as follows:
/민주주이에 의이/

Sunday, October 07, 2018

Have Koreans become much better teachers?


These days I am amazed by many of the Korean instructional videos I see on YouTube, especially videos of younger Koreans teaching the Korean language. Their teaching style seems much more pleasant and professional than the style I remember from when I was receiving instruction in Korean in the early 1980s. I had some good teachers back then, but they did not have the same level of skill, poise, and understanding that Korean language instructors seem to have today. Of course, it was thirty-five years ago that I studied, so one would expect to see advancements in the field of Korean language teaching, but many of the young Korean instructors I have seen in videos on YouTube recently have turned teaching into a beautiful art form that is fascinating to watch.

Consider the young lady in the video below. She gives a beautiful presentation and does some very creative things with her hands. And the voice and language she uses are great examples of how beautiful the Korean language can be. I may add to this post later.


Saturday, October 06, 2018

Does your 시옷 (ㅅ) leak?

Starting at about 1:53 in the video below, the Korean pronunciation instructor starts talking about a problem some Koreans have when pronouncing words that start with the Korean consonant 시옷 (ㅅ), which is equivalent to the English consonant "s." The problem is that some Koreans put too much emphasis on pronouncing the ㅅ, instead of on the vowel sound to which it is attached. She says the ㅅ is an alveolar consonant (치조음) and, therefore, does not actually have a sound without the attached vowel sound. Anyway, she says the problem is referred to as "시옷이 샌다," which translates as "The 시옷 leaks."

To keep your ㅅ from leaking, the instructor says you need to focus on pronouncing the vowels to which the ㅅ is attached, rather than on pronouncing the ㅅ. You can do this by pronouncing the vowel sounds more slowly and more precisely. She suggests you could try first pronouncing just the vowels, without the ㅅ, to help you keep your focus on them. When you pronounce the word 소송, for example, first say slowly and clearly 오옹, and then add the ㅅ to pronounce 소송, while remembering to keep the focus on the vowel sounds. If you do this, the problem should solve itself.

The instructor also says some Koreans have a similar problem pronouncing syllables with the consonants ㅈ and ㅊ, a problem that can also be solved by simply focusing more attention on pronouncing the vowels to which they are attached. For example, when pronouncing the word 시작, she suggests stretching out the vowels sounds to help you add focus to them, such as saying 시작 as /시이자악/.

So, that is how you stop your 시옷 (ㅅ) from leaking.

Friday, October 05, 2018

How is your initial 이응 pronunciation?

The lady in the video below talks about three problems some provincial Koreans have with intonation and pronunciation, and since it is something foreign learners of Korean can also benefit from, I decided to post it below.


The first problem she talks about is a problem some Koreans have with the intonation of the Korean consonant 이응 (o) when it comes at the beginning of a word, such as in 이마트 (E-mart), 억양, 에스케이 (SK), 오백 원, 인덕원, and 이의 이승 (2²). She says some Koreans tend to put too much stress on that first "o" consonant syllable, especially Koreans from the Gyeongsang region.

To correct the problem, she suggests relaxing the lips, lowering the tone, shortening the vowel sound, and pronouncing it by coming up from the bottom rather than from over the top, which suggests a slight rising tone on the first syllable. She even suggests physically using your hand, as I do, to help you visualize yourself correcting he problem. Finally, she says that when pronouncing a multi-syllable phrase like 이의 이승 that you must keep the intonation smooth and level, being careful not to give stronger stress to the second 이, as people from the Gyeongsang region tend to do.


The second problem she talks about is the problem of not changing the pronunciation of the consonants ㄱ, ㄷ, ㅂ, and ㅈ to their aspirated versions (ㅋ, ㅌ, ㅍ, ㅊ) when they are followed by the consonant ㅎ. For example, many Koreans in the Jolla region mispronounce 도착해서 as /도차개서/, ignoring the influence of the ㅎ sound. Instead, it should be pronounced as /도차캐서/. This is because the ㄱ in 착 and the ㅎ in 해서 are back-to-back to each other, causing the ㄱ and ㅎ to combine to form ㅋ. She says many Koreans from the Jolla region also tend to mispronounce 약하다 as /야가다/ instead of /야카다/ and 곱하기 as /고바기/ instead of /고파기/. 

Other practice examples she gives are the following:

  • 급격히 -- /급겨키/ 
  • 급하게 -- /그파게/
  • 노력했어요  --/노려캐써요/
  • 충당을 못해 -- /충당을 모태/ (The ㅅ is pronounced as ㄷ, so becomes ㅌ.)
  • 국하고 밥하고 -- /구카고 바파고/
  • 갑갑하다 -- / 갑가파다/
  • 졸업하고 /조러파고/
  • 약해 빠졌다 -- 야캐 빠졌다

The third problem she talks about is how some Koreans, especially those in the Gyeongsang region, do not smoothly connect the syllables of words. She also says they sometimes mistakenly put the stress on the second syllable of the word instead of the first.

To solve the problem, she suggests they use their index finger to draw an arch in the air as they are saying the words to help them smoothly connect the syllables. First, she gives examples of how the words are mispronounced and then gives examples of how they should pronounced. The examples she gives are 경영, 안양, and 영양사.


Finally, the video ends with the instructor explaining how to pronounce combined words and gives 뉴로얄 and 쌍철창살 as examples. 

뉴 is, of course, the Korean pronunciation of the English word "new," and 로얄 is the Korean pronunciation of the English word "royal," so words that would normally be separated in English are combined into one word in Korean to form the name 뉴로얄. These sentences seem to be tongue-twister pronunciation exercises, so the first sentence actually begins with "로얄 뉴로얄," which translates as the royal New-Royal.

Anyway, she says that even though 뉴로얄 is written as one word, you need to pause slightly after 뉴 to separate it from 로얄 when pronouncing it.

As for 쌍철창살, the syllable 쌍 means double, 철 means iron, and 창살 can mean wooded lattice or iron bars, such as those used in a prison or a zoo. By adding 철 to 창살, you are confirming that it should be translated as iron bars, not wooden lattice. Since 쌍 and 철 are describing the 창살, you should pause slightly between 쌍 and 철 and 창살, similar to the pause between 뉴 and 로얄 above. She added that to avoid mispronouncing the second syllable, 철, you could give it extra stress to help ensure it is understood.