Friday, June 16, 2006

What is the history of Ulleungdo? (Ch. 11)

Kim Brings Back 20 People from Muleungdo

On August 8, 1425, Kim In-u was given fifty men, military equipment, and a ship and sent to Muleungdo to bring back people reported to be living there. Almost two and a half months after Kim In-u's departure, the following record reports on his return and the results of his mission.

Source: :『世宗實錄』 卷 三十, 世宗七年 十月 乙酉條

October 20, 1425

于山茂陵等處安撫使金麟雨 搜捕本島避役男婦二十人來復命 初麟雨領兵船二艘 入茂陵島 船軍四十六名所坐一艘 飄風不知去向 上謂諸卿曰麟雨捕還二十餘人 而失四十餘人 何益哉 此島別無異産 所以逃入者 專以窺免賦役 禮曹叅判金自知啓曰 今此捕還逃民 請論如律 上曰 此人非潛從他國 且赦前所犯 不可加罪 仍命兵曹 置于忠淸道深遠山郡 使勿復逃 限三年復戶


우산(于山) 무릉(茂陵) 등처(等處) 안무사(安撫使) 김인우(金麟雨)가 본도(本島)에 피역(避役)한 남녀 20인을 수색하여 잡아와 복명(復命)하였다. 처음 인우가 병선(兵船) 두 척을 거느리고 무릉도에 들어갔는데 선군(船軍) 46명이 탄 배 한 척은 바람을 만나 간 곳을 알지 못하게 되었다. 임금이 여러 대신들에게 이르기를, 인우가 20여 인을 잡아왔으나 40여 인을 잃었으니 무엇이 유익하냐, 이 섬에는 별로 다른 산물도 없으니, 도망해 들어간 이유는 단순히 부역(賦役)을 모면하려 한 것이로구나, 라고 하였다. 예조 참판 김자지(金自知)가 계하기를, 지금 잡아온 도망한 백성을 법대로 논죄하기를 청합니다, 라고 하니, 임금이 말하기를, 이 사람들은 몰래 타국을 따른 것이 아니요, 또 전에 범한 바를 사면(赦免)해 준 일도 있으니 새로 죄주는 것은 불가하다 하고, 곧 병조에 명하여 충청도의 깊고 먼 산중 고을로 보내어 다시 도망하지 못하게 하고 3년 동안 복호(復戶)하게 하였다.


Usan-Muleung Area Inspector Kim In-u reported that he searched out and captured twenty men and women who went to "the island" (either "the island" or "main island") to escape government service. In the beginning, In-u commanded two military transport ships, but one ship, with forty-six sailors on board, disappeared after encountering winds on the way to Muleungdo.

The king said to his ministers, "What do we gain by capturing twenty people when we lose more than forty? There are no special products on the island, so the reason people go there is simply to avoid government service."

When Kim Ja-ji, the Minister of Rites, Protocol, Culture, and Education, requested that those captured on the island be judged according to the law, the king said, "These people did not secretly follow someone to a foreign country. Moreover, such transgressions were pardoned in the past, so giving out new punishment would be wrong."

The king ordered the Ministry of Military Affairs to send the people to a village far away and deep in the mountains of Chungcheong Province so that they cannot run away again. He also ordered that they be exempt from government service and taxes for three years.

The above record describes Kim In-u as being the Inspector for the Usan-Muleung Area, and then says that he brought back people who had be living on "the island," which grammatically is a little strange since no island had previously been mentioned. I assume "the island" is referring to the "Usan-Muleung" reference in Kim In-u's title, which would imply that Usan and Muleung are one island. However, besides meaning "the island," the Chinese characters, 本島, can also mean "main island," so it is possible that the phrase could be translated as "people who had been living on the main island," though I do not think this is what was meant. Later in the passage, Muleungdo is specifically referred to, so we can assume that the people had been living on Muleungdo. However, Muleungdo sometimes seems to refer to the island group as a whole, which might have been the intended meaning.

I do not think the above passage is clear enough to proclaim that the people were living on the main island of Ulleungdo or a neighboring island, but two and a half months earlier in this report, seven people had reported that they had left their wives and children on Muleungdo, which means the twenty people mentioned above were probably captured on Muleungdo. So the question is, "Was Muleungdo referring to the main island of Ulleungdo or a neighboring island?"

By the way, the seven people mentioned above said that twenty-eight of them had gone to Muleungdo in 1423. If you add the seven people caught on the main to the twenty people brought back from Muleungdo, it totals only twenty-seven, but twenty-eight were reported to have gone to the island in 1423. That means that one person is missing from the original group. Maybe the person died or was able to hide from the soldiers searching the island.

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