The opposite of 낙제 (落第) is 급제 (及第), which means "to pass an exam." The Chinese character 及(급) means "to reach" or "to attain."
I am interested in the Chinese character 及 (급) and how it combines with other characters to make certain words. For example, the Korean word 가급적 (可及的) means "as ... as possible" or "as much as possible." The character 可 (가) means "possible," and 及 (급) means "to reach" or "to attain," so it literally means "the quality of being able to reach or attain as much (of something) as possible."
The following are some other words that include the character 及 (급):
- 미급 (未及) - unattainable
- 역불급 (力不及) - beyond one's power or ability
- 소급 (遡及) - retroaction; retroactivity (遡 means "to oppose" or "to go against")
- 불소급 (不遡及) - not retroactive
- 과불급 (過不及) - excess or deficiency
- 추급 (追及) - overtake; catch up with
- 파급 (波及) - extend or spead (like a wave)
- 논급 (論及) - reference; mention
- 보급 (普及) - diffusion; spread (普 means "wide")
- 언급 (言及) - reference; mention
By the way, do not confuse the character 第 (제) with 弟 (제), which means "younger brother."